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1 Corinthians Introduction/ 1 Corinthians Chapter 1 Study/ Psalm 16 (17) Study Guide & Breakdown...

INTRODUCTION 1 CORINTHIANS

AUTHOR: St. Paul, the apostle to the Gentiles and the founder of the church at Corinth- (Acts 18:1-11), is the undisputed author of this epistle...


DATE: First Corinthians was probably written from Ephesus around AD 55, during Paul's third missionary journey- (Acts 19:1-20:1)


MAJOR THEME: Communion with God versus communion with the darkness...We are created for communion-(Greek- koinonia) with God and with each other...Koinonia is concretely experienced in the life of the Church, which is the Body of Christ and the temple of the Holy Spirit ...But communion is not automatic; we pursue it...And while we may cooperate with evil, we are created to cooperate with God and with each other...

(1): FACTIONALISM (1 CORINTHIANS 1:10-3:23)

(2): CIVIL LAWSUITS (1 CORINTHIANS 4:1-21-6:1-8)

(3): SEXUAL IMMORALITY (1 CORINTHIANS 5:1-13; 6:9-7:40)

(4): MEAT SACRIFICED TO IDOLS (1 CORINTHIANS 8:1-9:27

(5): EUCHARISTIC THEOLOGY AND PRACTICE (1 CORINTHIANS 10:1-11:34)

(6): SPIRITUAL GIFTS (1 CORINTHIANS 12:1-14:40)

(7): RESURRECTION LIFE (1 CORINTHIANS 15:1-16:24)


BACKGROUND: There were a number of problems in the Corinthian church to which Paul responds in this letter...These problems include: (a): CHURCH DISUNITY: Many Corinthian Christians had broken into several factions based on improper loyalty to particular Christian leaders- (1 Co 1:12): (b): DOCTRINAL SPECULATIONS: Erroneous teaching thrived in Corinth, particularly that of the gnostic variety: (c) MORAL FAILURE: The Corinthian church, free from persecution, became spiritually weak and succumbed to the moral failure the city was famous for: (d): DEALING WITH PAGAN RELIGIONS: Christians in Corinth could not agree about how to respond to idolatry: (e): SELF-CENTEREDNESS AND SPIRITUAL GIFTS: Corinth was brilliantly endowed with spiritual gifts, perhaps as the Holy Spirit's counter to the hedonism there: But the self-centeredness of the gifted ones brought dishonor to God: The Internal evidence of 1 and 2 Corinthians indicates Paul originally wrote two additional letters to the Corinthians which have now been lost: one before 1 Corinthians (see 1 Co 5:9-11) and one between 1 and 2 Corinthians (the :sorrowful" letter; see 2Co 2:4-11; and 7:8): The problem in Corinth were not quickly or easily solved...


1 CORINTHIANS CHAPTER 1 STUDY GUIDE & BREAKDOWN

THE GREETING; THANKSGIVING FOR GOD'S GRACE AT CORINTH

1 CORINTHIANS 1:1-9

1:1: SINCE PAUL IS CALLED TO BE AN APOSTLE BY THE WILL OF GOD men cannot remove him as some were trying to do so...A SOSTHENES is also mentioned in ACTS 18:17 as the ruler of the synagogue at Corinth: Probably this is he: there are stories of his spectacular conversion in early records, which also report that Sosthenes became bishop of Caesarea...

1:2: DESPITE DISORDER, DISUNITY, and error among the Corinthians, the apostle still calls them THE CHURCH OF GOD, SANCTIFIED IN CHRIST, AND SAINTS, those set apart to God: Baptized into Christ, united with Him, this Church by His mercy is one with the faithful everywhere...

1:3: GRACE is God's unlimited, unconditional, uncreated love, freely given to those who do not deserve it: PEACE is our reconciliation with God and with each other: "PEACE TO YOU", found repeatedly in the OT, is the common everyday greeting then and now throughout the Middle East... "PEACE BE TO YOU" in the Orthodox Divine Liturgy is connected to the reading of the Gospel, the kiss of peace, and the Lord's Prayer...Jesus gave to the disciples the gift of peace, which is the presence of the Holy Spirit- (JOHN 14:27; AND JOHN 20:19):

1:4-9: THOUGH HE WILL LATER rebuke this church severely, Paul's assurance concerning their gifts and calling is sincere...For God's grace is given to the church in every place, even in Corinth...

1:4: NOTHING is so acceptable to God as our thankfulness for His grace, even in Corinth...

1:7: REVELATION implies that although He is not seen, yet the LORD JESUS CHRIST is present even now, and then shall appear in glory: The Second Coming of Christ is a main point in Paul's teaching, for then our salvation will be clearly revealed and fully known...


REPORTED CONTENTIOUSNESS IN THE CHURCH

1 CORINTHIANS 1:10-12

1:10: HERE FOR THE FIRST TIME Paul rebukes the Corinthians, pleading with them in the name of the Lord to put away DIVISIONS and maintain unity in the Church...

1:11: CHOLE was a prominent woman who hosted the Corinthian church in her home and who faithfully reported these CONTENTIONS to Paul...

1:12: APOLLOS was a learned Jew from Alexandria, Egypt, "mighty in the Scriptures"- (Acts 18:24): Originally a follower of "the baptism of John" (Acts 18:25), he was taught more fully about Christ by Priscilla and Aquila at Ephesus, and he later preached at Corinth, where some saw him as a rival to Paul: tradition tells us Apollos became the first bishop of Crete- (see Tts 3:13): Paul makes it plain that he and Apollos are partners in apostolic work and that Apollos would not approve of the factionalism in Corinth- (Romans 3:4-6; Romans 4:6; and Romans 16:12):


THE SACRAMENT OF UNITY: BAPTISM

1 CORINTHIANS 1:13

1:13: IS CHRIST DIVIDED??? OR IS THE CHURCH??? The answer to all questions in this passage is no...One can leave the Church, but not to divide it!!! Factionalism, however, brings great harm to the Church, for it seeks to give the apostle a place only Christ should occupy-(vv. 13-17)... Many looked upon the apostles as teachers of philosophy rather than preachers of the Cross- (1 Co 1:18-2:5): The factious do not accept true wisdom, which is bestowed by the Spirit- (1 Co 2:6-3:4): and they misrepresent the apostles as rivals to each other rather than as fellow workers in Christ-(1 Co 3:5-23)...


THE MESSAGE OF UNITY: EXALTATION OF THE CROSS

1 CORINTHIANS 1:14-31

1:14: CRISPUS had been the ruler of the synagogue at Corinth- (Acts 18:8)...Converted through the preaching of Paul, then baptized, he was apparently succeeded as ruler by Sosthenes- (Acts 18:17): Gaius was a resident of Corinth with whom Paul was staying when he wrote the Epistle to the Romans-(Romans 16:23): The third Epistle of John-(see 3 John 1) seems to have been directed to this same Gaius...

1:15-17: PAUL'S DENIAL does not degrade baptism; he is simply emphasizing that baptizing is not his primary role: As, an apostle, Paul's primary job is to PREACH THE GOSPEL-(v. 17), teaching those seeking God to be baptized: The one who performs a baptism is God's instrument; the convert's loyalty must be to God alone...

1:17-25: WISDOM OF WORDS (v. 17) refers especially to philosophical thought and rhetorical devices...such human wisdom by itself does not promote salvation or an understanding of how God works in the world and what He wishes us to do...

1:18: WHY IS THE MESSAGE OF THE CROSS...FOOLISHNESS TO UNBELIEVERS??? It is a mark of them that perish not to recognize the things which lead to salvation- (JohnChr): We who bear witness to Christ must not be discouraged when those outside of Him mock, for so did once even Paul himself...BEING SAVED, PRESENT TENSE, refers to the process by which the Cross transforms us with the POWER OF GOD...

1:22: TO THOSE WHO REQUEST A SIGN, the church offers one: The Cross!!! The Cross is to be adored, for wherever the sign may be, there will be Jesus...

1:24: SINCE CHRIST IS THE POWER AND WISDOM OF GOD THE FATHER- the brightness of the Father's glory-(Hebrews 1:3), the substantial and perfect image of the invisible God-where He is, there is the uncreated and saving grace of God, His Cross restores man to immortality and stirs up desire for the things of heaven...

1:28: THE BASE OF THINGS OF THE WORLD are those persons who are considered to be nothing because of their great insignificance- (JohnChr): there is no such thing as a no-account Christian- (v. 27; 2 Co 12:9)


PSALM 16 (17) STUDY GUIDE & BREAKDOWN

PSALM 16 (17)

PSALM 16 (17): Hear a just cause, O Lord, Attend to my cry; Give ear to my prayer which is not from deceitful lips. 2 Let my vindication come from Your presence; Let Your eyes look on the things that are upright.

3 You have tested my heart; You have visited me in the night; You have [a]tried me and have found [b]nothing; I have purposed that my mouth shall not transgress. 4 Concerning the works of men, By the word of Your lips, I have kept away from the paths of the destroyer. 5 Uphold my steps in Your paths, That my footsteps may not slip.

6 I have called upon You, for You will hear me, O God; Incline Your ear to me, and hear my speech. 7 Show Your marvelous lovingkindness by Your right hand, O You who [c]save those who trust in You From those who rise up against them. 8 Keep me as the [d]apple of Your eye; Hide me under the shadow of Your wings, 9 From the wicked who oppress me, From my deadly enemies who surround me.

10 They have closed up their fat hearts; With their mouths they speak proudly. 11 They have now surrounded us in our steps; They have set their eyes, crouching down to the earth, 12 As a lion is eager to tear his prey, And like a young lion lurking in secret places.

13 Arise, O Lord, Confront him, cast him down; Deliver my life from the wicked with Your sword, 14 With Your hand from men, O Lord, From men of the world who have their portion in this life, And whose belly You fill with Your hidden treasure. They are satisfied with children, And leave the rest of their possession for their babes.

15 As for me, I will see Your face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied when I awake in Your likeness.


PSALM 16 (17): was prayed by the Lord Jesus to the Father, to teach the Church to pray righteously and NOT WITH DECEITFUL LIPS- (v. 1); For the Lord GIVES EAR to those praying in truth-(vv. 1, 6): And we (1): SEE THINGS THE WAY THE LORD SEES THEM- (v. 2); (2): PASS THE TEST in the furnace of obedience to the Lord's words- (vv. 3-5); (3): HOPE IN THE LORD in the face of adversity- (v. 7); (4): EXPERIENCE PROTECTION from enemies, such as the devil and his angels-(vv. 8-14); and (5): ARE STATISFIED BY BEHOLDING the Lord's face, that is, His glory- (v. 15)...




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